chapter7& chapter 8已有 4387 次阅读 2011-05-27 14:23
chapter 7 confusional arousals, night terrors, and sleepwalking
这3个都可以叫做： partial arousal parasomnias: it is occuts during deep NREM sleep, the majority of this happens in the first third of the night. 2-4 岁容易发生， 慢慢就会好了。 成人少见。 孩子的表现可能是做起来， 或者走路， screaming, sweaty and breathing quickly, faster heart beat, dilated pupils. 叫不醒， 早上不会记得。 没什么害处， 家庭遗传。 有可能是白天太累了， 也有可能是被什么不完全的惊醒了。 Do not interfere with your child during the arousal. Watch him fro a safe distance so that you can ensure his safety, If you try to interact with a child who is having a night terror or sleepwaking, you may increase his agitation and violence. Remove furniture or objects that your child can trip on or that could be harmful. Lead him calmly back to his bed if he got out. Child will naturally fall back to sleep. In the morning, do not remind your child of the night terror.
chapter 8: nightmares and nighttime anxiety
When your child awakes from a nightmare, he will be fully aroused, oriented to his environment, and able to speak. Unlike in a night terror, 后者只是 partially awake from deep sleep. Nightmares 人人都有， toddler比较严重因为他们还分不清楚什么是真实的， 什么是想象的。 一般的建议是： 建立好的睡眠routin， 睡觉前不要看电视， 不要剧烈活动， 睡前的书要peaceful. 要给孩子安全感， 孩子醒了要去安慰， 但不建议把孩子带回父母的屋子里。
chapter 9： Snoring, Apnea and hypoventilation
呼吸系统是由： is controlled by a very small area situated at the base of the brain, where the brain joins the spinal cord, called the brain stem. The actual part og the brain controlling this process is called the respiratory nuclei. This is a subconscious part of the brain, controlling things we do without even thinking about them.
Apnea: If the airway closes off completely, tghere is no airflow and therefore no noise. This is called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS). Apena is defined as an absence of any effective breathing or airflow into the lungs, usually for at least 10 seconds, or at least three missed breaths. There are three different types of sleep apnea, each with varying degrees of severith. Central sleep apnea, which may cause brief pauses in breathing during certain sleep, can be normal or may be significant, needing evaluation. OSAS, which causes episodes of problem that needs to be investigated and treated. Mixed pattern sleep apnea, which has elements of both central and OSAS, also needs to be investigated and treated.
chapter 10: Bed-wetting(Enuresis)
Two types of enuresis(diurnal and nocturnal)
No behavioral or medical treatment is necessary for primary nocturnal enuresis. This type of enuresis is due to deep sleep and resolves with time.
if you child begins to wet himself during the day when awake, need worry.
chapter 11: Restless legs syndrome(RLS)
chapter 12: teeth grinding and gnashing(bruxism)
chapter 13: Rhythmic movement disorder(RMD); RMD commonly occurs in infants and toddlers and usually resolves around the second or third year of life. Children diaplay some sort of RMD by 9 month of age.
Many children develop a soothing repetitive motion, rocking theri bodies, banging their heads, or other rocking motions that help them fall asleep. There are all normal way to fall asleep.
chapter 14: Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness.
chapter 15: Teenage sleepiness
chapter 16: Sleep during pregnancy